Quantum computers have been a widely discussed term in the technology world for many years. A quantum computer is any device for computation that makes direct use of distinctively quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. It is said that anyone who can reach this computer will be the controller of the whole world. It can solve many complex problems in a quantum mechanism. In order to solve the same problem, the latest modern computer takes hundreds of thousands of years. This is what is called quantum matchless quality. That is, when an organization or a country can solve those complex problems in a very short time through quantum computers, it will be said that they have achieved quantum supremacy.
In a classical computer, information is stored as bits; in a quantum computer, it is stored as qubits (quantum bits).The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent and structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Classical computers manipulate ones and zeroes to crunch through operations, but quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits. Just like classical computers, quantum computers use ones and zeros, but qubits have a third state called “superposition” that allows them to represent a one or a zero at the same time. Instead of analyzing a one or a zero sequentially, superposition allows two qubits in superposition to represent four scenarios at the same time. Therefore, the time it takes to crunch a data set is significantly reduced. Google claimed that a quantum computer can do the work that it cannot do on a conventional computer. Google’s quantum computer information leaked last month. It claims that Google has already created a quantum computer.
How do quantum computers work?
Instead of bits, quantum computers use qubits. Rather than just being on or off, qubits can also be in what’s called ‘superposition’ where they’re both on and off at the same time, or somewhere on a spectrum between the two. A quantum computer can go down every path of the maze at once. It can hold uncertainty in its head. The other thing that qubits can do is called entanglement. Normally, if you flip two coins, the result of one coin toss has no bearing on the result of the other one. They’re independent. In entanglement, two particles are linked together, even if they’re physically separate. If one comes up heads, the other one will also be heads.It sounds like magic, and physicists still don’t fully understand how or why it works. But in the realm of quantum computing, it means that you can move information around, even if it contains uncertainty.
What can quantum computers do?
Quantum computers aren’t just about doing things faster or more efficiently. They’ll let us do things that we couldn’t even have dreamed of without them. Things that even the best supercomputer just isn’t capable of. They have the potential to rapidly accelerate the development of artificial intelligence. Google is already using them to improve the software of self-driving cars. They’ll also be vital for modelling chemical reactions. Right now, supercomputers can only analyze the most basic molecules. But quantum computers operate using the same quantum properties as the molecules they’re trying to simulate. They should have no problem handling even the most complicated reactions. Cryptography will be another key application. This is called factoring, and for classical computers, it’s slow, expensive and impractical. But quantum computers can do it easily. And that could put our data at risk. There are rumours that intelligence agencies across the world are already stockpiling vast amounts of encrypted data in the hope that they’ll soon have access to a quantum computer that can crack it. The only way to fight back is with quantum encryption. This relies on the uncertainty principle the idea that you can’t measure something without influencing the result. Quantum encryption keys could not be copied or hacked. They would be completely unbreakable.
When will I get a quantum computer?
Quantum computers have been theorized about for decades, but the reason it’s taken so long for them to arrive is that they’re incredibly sensitive to interference. Almost anything can knock a qubit out of the delicate state of superposition. As a result, quantum computers have to be kept isolated from all forms of electrical interference, and chilled down to close to absolute zero. That’s colder than outer space. They’ll mostly be used by academics and businesses, who will probably access them remotely. It’s already possible to use IBM’s quantum computer via its website you can even play a card game with it. But we still have a while to wait before quantum computers can do all the things they promise. Right now, the best quantum computers have about 50 qubits. That’s enough to make them incredibly powerful, because every qubit you add means an exponential increase in processing capacity. But they also have really high error rates, because of those problems with interference.
They’re powerful, but not reliable. That means that for now, claims of quantum supremacy have to be taken with a pinch of salt. In any case, reaching quantum supremacy doesn’t mean quantum computers are actually ready to do anything useful. Researchers have made great progress in developing the algorithms that quantum computers will use. But the devices themselves still need a lot more work.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantum Computers:
Quantum computers have many advantages. It does not solve many mathematical problems. According to scientists, quantum computers will be able to solve the problems that traditional computers have in order to solve very complex problems. As a result, quantum computers can revolutionize everywhere from pharmaceuticals to oil industries. Particularly complex mathematical problems in physics and chemistry can be solved quickly. New drugs will be created. Commercial algorithms of financial institutions can be further improved. Even the early forms of artificial intelligence that scientists are working on can be improved soon.
Such algorithms are not easy to formulate, it take time and research and development (R&D) effort and resources to discover what work. Shor’s algorithm cleverly uses the effects of quantum parallelism to give the results of the prime factorization problem in a matter of seconds whereas a classical computer would take, in some cases, more than the age of the universe to produce a result! (You can notice that no just technology, but also require new breakthrough algorithm and we do require other supporting technology such as leverage of machine learning (ML), artificial intelligence (AI), Big Data, Cloud Computing to accelerate Quantum Computing development. Above just an example, you can get a lot from the various news, since the world is keep evolving.
There are risks. If an advanced quantum computer was created, all the security of the current Internet of Things would collapse like a house of cards. British economist The Economist says quantum computers will be able to do whatever they want in the company. The personal information of billions of Internet users can be taken into their own bags. The government database can be hacked. Undue control can be imposed on the banking system. The state defense system can be turned off if desired. Considering these aspects, many do not even hesitate to call it a “terrible” computer.
First thing first, it is cost. Even IBM recent show case their first commercial Quantum Computing solution, it is make viable sense to offer as “subscription” basis base on the use case on demand only. For the Quantum Computing to be really achieve critical mass adoption, it take a long time for all the cost variable become reasonable, then we can see how Quantum Computing revolution the current mass technology. So, it make sense to be aware that is coming, but may or may not necessary to heavy invest on it yet.
Where is a quantum computer likely to be most useful first?
One of the most promising applications of quantum computers is for simulating the behavior of matter down to the molecular level. And pharmaceutical companies are leveraging them to analyze and compare compounds that could lead to the creation of new drugs. The machines are also great for optimization problems because they can crunch through vast numbers of potential solutions extremely fast. Airbus, for instance, is using them to help calculate the most fuel-efficient ascent and descent paths for aircraft. It could take quite a few years for quantum computers to achieve their full potential. Universities and businesses working on them are facing a shortage of skilled researchers in the field and a lack of suppliers of some key components. But if these exotic new computing machines live up to their promise, they could transform entire industries and turbocharge global innovation.
Quantum computing could change the world. It could transform medicine, break encryption and revolutionize communications and artificial intelligence. Companies like IBM, Microsoft revolution in computing. At this time we can only point to experiments and speculate how quantum computing could improve imaging, diagnosis, treatment, and population health. It is yet to be determined if and when quantum computers will be accessible for daily use in medicine and research. We have numerous examples of machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence that may leverage the power of quantum computing to deliver real time results. Until this level of access is available, quantum computing will remain the domain of researchers, not physicians. Quantum computers have the potential to revolutionize computation by making certain types of classically intractable problems solvable. While no quantum computer is yet sophisticated enough to carry out calculations that a classical computer can’t, great progress is under way. A few large companies and small start-ups now have functioning non-error-corrected quantum computers composed of several tens of qubits, and some of these are even accessible to the public through the cloud. Additionally, quantum simulators are making strides in fields varying from molecular energetics to many-body physics.As small systems come online a field focused on near-term applications of quantum computers is starting to burgeon. This progress may make it possible to actualize some of the benefits and insights of quantum computation long before the quest for a large-scale, error-corrected quantum computer is complete.