Coronavirus is a collection of viruses that cause sickness that affect the body s respiratory system. They include: common cold with symptoms like; increase in body temperature, cough and breathing difficulties. These symptoms may vary from mild to serious sickness known as severe Acute Syndrome (SARS). Therefore, it is a transmittable disease caused by a new virus.
A vaccine is a drug prepared biologically which is meant to help our bodies fight against organisms e.g. viruses that cause diseases. Vaccines produce antibodies used by immune system to weaken organisms. Therefore, vaccines are meant to improve our bodies immune system thus keeping our bodies safe from the disease that the organisms cause.
Scientists researching on the coronavirus vaccine have confirmed that the vaccine will be out after several months ranging from 12-18 months. They say, this might take longer because, for a vaccine to be approved, first, it should be safe for human, researchers must take their time to produce a strong vaccine. It also requires a lot of funds for a research to be successful. This virus that caused COVID-19 disease has a lot of challenges that research will encounter. This is because it is a new virus, it has never been researched on before. Coronavirus vaccine will take more than a year for it to. be tested. Despite all the challenges, scientists have started their research and they are hopeful that the vaccine will be successful.
Reasons why coronavirus might take longer than expected:
- They are complex to make.
For a vaccine to be approved for a certain sickness, it has to go through some process. That include; the scientists stimulate the body s immune system in order to fight the organisms causing the disease. They create vaccines that are similar to the viruses hence start developing antibodies which fight off the disease. There are several types of vaccines. These include:
- Live-attenuated vaccines – this type of vaccine is made up of weaker antibodies of the specific virus. The antibodies are taken care of in the animal cells outside the actual human bod, they are then removed from the animal and injected into the human body in small doses. This is because the vaccine provides strong protection. Attenuated vaccines are used to prevent: measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, smallpox and yellow fever.
- Inactivated vaccines – they are made up of killed pathogens that cause a disease. This type don’t provide a strong protection. So, one is required to take several doses after a certain period for the immunity to be constant. Inactivated vaccines are used against hepatitis A, flu, polio, and rabies.
- Conjugate vaccines – this type use specific piece of pathogens. They provide strong immune responsible for a certain pathogen. Anybody can use this type of vaccine though one may need booster shots to continue being protected against the disease. These vaccines are used against; Hepatitis B and HPV.
- Toxoids vaccines – they use a poisonous substance made by the organism that cause the disease. Toxoid vaccines provide protection to specific parts of the organism instead of the organism itself. They protect against Diphtheria and Tetanus.
- 2.Vaccines need to be tested more than ones.
For vaccines to be approved, they need to be tested many times as possible and this process takes a period more that 3 years. This is done to make sure they don’t cause serious side effects on human beings. Vaccine production take three stages. They include:
- Testing on a few adult patients
In stage I, some human patients are picked to be tested on emergency vaccine. This is done by using cells in laboratories or using animals instead of human beings to ensure it is safe for humans.
- Testing on a larger no. of patients
A larger number of adult patients are picked from a hotspot area of the epidemic. This stage deals with clinical trials of the vaccine whereby the patients under the vaccine are closely observed. This stage picks many patients to enlarge the safety assessment and it helps researchers observe the immune response.
- Testing on thousands of peoples
In stage III, people are picked randomly some are given the vaccine while others get as placebo (treatment without curative measures). This stage has challenges because when there is an epidemic, none would want to risk their lives by taking a placebo instead of a vaccine that would prevent them from getting the disease.
3. Safety of the vaccine.
A vaccine is meant to prevent people from getting serious diseases e.g. polio. Therefore, before a vaccine is developed, scientists should ensure it is safe with a few side effects or none.
4. Manufacturing of vaccines before the epidemic ends.
We have experienced closure of labs, death of medical personnel due to the coronavirus epidemic. Therefore, manufacturing of a vaccine before the epidemic ends might be a big challenge because if it happens then the vaccine will be of no help to humans. Companies may invest a lot in creating a vaccine only for the epidemic to end before there is a chance for the vaccine to be out in the market. Also, the individuals who create the vaccine may not be the ones to manufacture the vaccine.
5. It is costly.
New vaccines need a lot of resources and funds for research to be done. This is because they are new and no research has been done about them. Scientists may invest a lot of resources in the research yet there is no guarantee of success. And if it happens to be successful, the final product might delay till the epidemic is gone hence waste of resources.